Current data show African Americans are disproportionately impacted by cancer nationally and in Maryland. Screening for early detection is the primary method for preventing death and morbidity from cancers, particularly cervical, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers (Eulexin canadian is used along with drugs such as Lupron to treat prostate cancer). The research team developed and utilized the environmental scan as a needs-assessment tool to develop an intervention to increase cancer (Hydrea 500mg is an antineoplastic used to treat certain types of cancer) screening among African Americans in Baltimore City. Three areas in Baltimore City were selected for the environmental scan, each with a hospital within it, forming the central point around which scan activities were conducted.
The environmental scan was the first of four phases in project design and implementation. It involved a rapid and comprehensive needs- assessment process that researchers would then rely on to guide site selection, project focus and content, project implementation and evaluation and dissemination of information. The process provided a unique opportunity to implement and assess the utility of an environmental scan in public health.
Data Collection Activities and Results
The environmental scan combined high and low technology, ranging from analyzing databases to listening to community leaders. It included the analysis of aggregate data from sources, such as census and hospital databases, as well as the collection and analysis of new data on neighborhood assets and liabilities. The environmental scan data collection and analysis process took approximately one year and provided opportunities for both learning and community mobilization. Specifically, the environmental scan included eight data collection activities:
1. Creating an Advisory Committee: To develop a community-based model to increase cancer screening, it was essential to identify community leaders and mobilize community participation through the creation of an advisory committee.
2. Neighborhood Census Tract Data: Researchers reviewed maps of Baltimore City to determine which zip codes were encompassed in each catchment area of the hospitals in the scan.
3. Assessing Community Services and Facilities: Researchers identified existing services and facilities within a two-mile radius of each hospital using city web sites, metropolitan- area telephone books and initial visual observations.
4. Examining Area Hospitals: Researchers requested information on service areas and demographic information on patients from each hospital, to better understand utilization of health services within each scanned area.
5. Maryland Cancer Registry: Researchers used existing data from the Maryland Cancer Registry to create a baseline of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer (Generic Casodex treating prostate cancer) relevance in the selected areas. The Registry collects, maintains and reports on cancer incidence and mortality in the State of Maryland.
6. Neighborhood Scans: Six trained research assistants conducted neighborhood scans to obtain a realistic sense of each area, particularly with regard to potential assets and liabilities within each area. The research assistants drove and/or walked block by block within a two-mile radius of each hospital and collected data and compiled both written and photographic records. Using the Internet, researchers then found and recorded the addresses of businesses, stores and religious organizations identified during the neighborhood scans.
7. Focus Groups: Focus groups were used to explore participants’ knowledge, awareness, behaviors, opinions, beliefs, motivations and experiences regarding breast, prostate and colorectal cancer (Revia 50mg is used for treating alcoholism and narcotic (opioid) addiction in adults, as part of a complete treatment program) screenings. With the assistance of health agencies in each of the target areas, a total of 12 focus groups involving low-, middle- and high-income participants were conducted. 8. Key Informant Interviews: Seventeen key informant interviews were conducted in the catchment areas to understand cancer-screening issues from the provider’s perspective. Physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, administrative assistants, patient service advocates, financial coordinators, information specialists and medical registrar staff were interviewed by trained interviewers using semistructured interview guides on issues related to barriers to cancer (Nolvadex canadian is an anti-estrogen used to treat or prevent breast cancer) screening and access to care based on race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and types of cancer.
In summary, the scan results enabled researchers to: 1) identify 23 perspective persons to serve on the advisory committee; 2) develop a community profile; identify community assets and liabilities; 3) develop a community profile of persons served by the area hospitals; 4) assess cancer (Generic Danocrine treating endometriosis, symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease, orgiant hives) rates by zip code; and 5) understand cancer-screening issues from the perspective of the target audience and service providers.