The study consisted of self-reported African Americans selected from a larger population-based cohort of participants aged 18 years or older who were consecutively recruited from barbershops, shopping malls, churches, community organizations/centers and health fairs in the south and southwest metropolitan of Atlanta. Ninety healthy nor-motensive subjects (54 females and 36 males, mean age 44 ± 10 years, range 19-73) were selected for this study because their BP (Generic Plavix used to reduce the risk of stroke or heart attack in patients with atherosclerosis) was always below 140/90 mmHg on repeated occasions. Their BP was further characterized as either: 1) normal (if both systolic and diastolic BP (Generic Hytrin treating high blood pressure) values were consistently below 130- and 85 mmHg, respectively) or 2) high-normal (for systolic BP of 130-139 mmHg and/or diastolic Blood Pressure of 85-89 mmHg), according to the 6th Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). All subjects were free of hypertension and prevalent Cardiovascular disease based on history, physical examination, rest electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and routine laboratory tests. None were taking cardiovascular medication or recreational drugs. Each participant was aware of the investigational nature of the study and gave written informed consent before entry into the study, which had been approved by the Morehouse School of Medicine’s Institutional Review Board Committee.
Study Protocol and Measurement of Blood Pressure
Subjects fasted overnight and were instructed to refrain from smoking or drinking alcohol or any beverages the day of the study at least 4-6 hours prior to the admission to the Clinical Research Center. Upon admission to the Clinical Research Center, blood samples were collected and vital signs measured after 10 minutes of rest in a semirecumbent position. BP was constantly monitored for further characterization of Blood Pressure profile by use of an automated monitor (thoracic electrical impedance, Cardio-dynamics Inc, CA). The average of three consecutive BP (Accupril canadian is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart failure.) recordings taken 2-3 minutes apart after the initial 10-minute rest period was used in all analyses. A complete conventional echocardiographic dataset (see below) was then obtained with the subject in the recumbent, resting state, in a quiet and temperature-controlled room (22-24°C).
In each subject, fasting venous blood samples were collected immediately before ultrasound studies and analyzed for plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides by standard methods (Doctors Laboratory, Inc). Total nitrate (N02)/nitrite (N03) concentration in plasma (i.e., NOx), the most important end products of nitric oxide (|iM), was determined by colorimetric assay kit (Cayman Chemical Co., MI). All NO samples were analyzed in triplicate with a coefficient of variation <10% and the correlation coefficient for standard curve always >0.998.