The Uteroplacental Prolactin Family: CONCLUSIONS (2)

Understanding of the physiology of the uteroplacental PRL family in the mouse and rat has provided and will continue to provide access to important regulatory processes in other species. Observations in the hypophysectomized pregnant mouse and rat led to cross-species discoveries of PLs and cross-species characterizations of corpus luteum and mammary gland function. In some…

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The Uteroplacental Prolactin Family: CONCLUSIONS (1)

The uteroplacental PRL family of the mouse and rat represents an intriguing biological paradigm. At least fifteen different ligands bearing some similarity to PRL have been identified. Their expression is highly coordinated between populations of maternal and trophoblastic cells, and their known actions are vital for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Given these important…

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The Uteroplacental Prolactin Family: THE RODENT UTEROPLACENTAL PRL FAMILY(15)

2) PLF/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway. Many of the actions of PLF appear to be mediated through PLF interactions with the IGF-II/mamiose-6-phosphate receptor. Historically, the IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor has been viewed as a competitor for actions through the IGF-I receptor and not as a receptor possessing a fundamental signaling role. This relationship of the IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate…

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The Uteroplacental Prolactin Family: THE RODENT UTEROPLACENTAL PRL FAMILY(14)

1) PRL receptor signaling pathway. Considerable information has accrued regarding PRL stimulation of the PRL receptor signaling pathway. In contrast, knowledge of the nature of the intracellular pathways activated by classical members of the placental PRL family is meager. PL-I, PL-II, and PL-Iv are all capable of binding to various PRL receptor preparations. The only…

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The Uteroplacental Prolactin Family: THE RODENT UTEROPLACENTAL PRL FAMILY(13)

Whether the specialization lies in the biological activities of the ligands, their cellular source, or their control remains to be elucidated. 2) PLF/PLF-RP regulatory network: angiogenesis, cell growth, and differentiation. Establishment of a vascular connection between the mother and the fetus is imperative for a successful pregnancy and represents an essential role for trophoblast cells….

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The Uteroplacental Prolactin Family: THE RODENT UTEROPLACENTAL PRL FAMILY(12)

Biological Functions Our understanding of the physiological roles and modes of action of members of the uteroplacental PRL family is somewhat limited but is rapidly expanding. The recent growth in our knowledge base is directly related to the increasing availability of a wide range of experimental tools for studying the biology of the uteroplacental PRL…

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The Uteroplacental Prolactin Family: THE RODENT UTEROPLACENTAL PRL FAMILY(11)

Transport and Tissue Distribution Most members of the uteroplacental PRL family have been shown to be present in maternal circulation, and some have been shown to exist in the fetus. Access and availability to target cells are key parameters affecting the biological activities of a hormone. These parameters of hormone action can be influenced by…

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