Effects of Glycosaminoglycans: DISCUSSION(8)

The value is similar to the rate of 1- and 2-cell porcine embryos matured and fertilized in vivo. Taken together with these results, our findings indicate that the higher incidence of fragmentation and degeneration of embryos was caused by polyspermic fertilization. Therefore, if the incidence of polyspermy is suppressed, the effect of hyaluronic acid on…

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Effects of Glycosaminoglycans: DISCUSSION(7)

Sato et al. reported that hyaluronic acid-like GAGs possess viability-promoting activity for porcine and murine oocytes in vitro. We found previously that the proportion of degenerated porcine embryos was lower in the presence than in the absence of hyaluronic acid. By this beneficial effect, 70% of 1- and 2-cell-stage embryos developed to the blastocyst stage…

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Effects of Glycosaminoglycans: DISCUSSION(6)

Lee and Ax have reported that the concentrations of GAGs per 100 mg of protein identified from flushing of bovine oviduct and uterine horn are 9 and 20 mg/ml, respectively. The total protein concentrations for oviductal and uterine fluid are 1.2-52.0 and approximately 10.0-18.6 mg/ml, respectively. Therefore, the total GAG concentration in oviductal and uterine…

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Effects of Glycosaminoglycans: DISCUSSION(5)

In general, the number of nuclei in blastocysts derived in vitro is lower than for blastocysts derived in vivo. Papaioannou and Ebert have reported that the number of cells in porcine blastocysts collected from uteri ranges from 9 to 64. In the present study, the number of cells per blastocyst ranged from 20 to 62…

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Effects of Glycosaminoglycans: DISCUSSION(4)

Two GAGs did not have a promotive effect: dermatan sulfate and heparin at 0.5 mg/ml (Table 1) and various other concentrations (0.05-1.0 mg/ml; data not shown). The reason these GAGs had no effect is unknown. Chondroitin sulfate A, however, yielded a small (in comparison with hyaluronic acid-supplemented medium) but significant increase in the percentage of…

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Effects of Glycosaminoglycans: DISCUSSION(3)

In the periim-plantational development of mouse embryos in vitro, exogenous hyaluronic acid also promotes the differentiation of extra-embryonic tissues. Recently, hyaluronate interaction with CD44 proteoglycans, a family of transmembrane proteins present in a wide variety of cells, has been shown to have many functions such as embryonic morphogenesis and organogenesis, although the expression of the…

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Effects of Glycosaminoglycans: DISCUSSION(2)

These studies indicate that the factor or factors that promote the development of embryos under these culture conditions are not specific for species and cell type. GAGs and proteoglycans are synthesized by different types of cells and play an important role in various cellular events, such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. For instance, cumulus and…

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