Associates of Bone Mineral Density: DISCUSSION

This investigation provides new insight into the correlates of BMD among older African Americans. As might be expected, female gender was highly associated with lower BMD. Of importance, however, is the substantial contribution of weight to the explained variability, while age diminishes in importance after adjustment for covariates. The association of weight with BMD or…

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Associates of Bone Mineral Density: RESULTS

The participants ranged in age from 67 to 97, with a mean age of 75.3. Men comprised 37.5% of the sample. The participants were relatively well-educated, reporting an average of 13.1 years of education. The average family had an annual income between $16,000 and $24,999. Based on their reported physical activity, African-American participants in CHS…

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Associates of Bone Mineral Density: METHODS

As part of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), DXA scans were preformed on 1,591 older men and women, including 302 African Americans. CHS is a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of men and women over the age of 64 recruited from four geographically distinct sites in the United States. Additionally, other medical, functional and psychosocial data…

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Associates of Bone Mineral Density

INTRODUCTION The epidemiologic literature has consistently shown that black women and men have a higher bone mineral density (BMD) and a lower incidence of osteoporotic fracture compared to age- and sex-matched whites. The lower rate of fractures among blacks has been attributed to their higher BMD levels, but other factors could contribute. Furthermore, the relationship…

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Diversity and Professional Excellence: SECTION THREE

SECTION THREE: MODES OF IMPLEMENTATION This essay has examined diversity rights claims within the medical profession systemically—especially in its manner of training and admitting new practitioners to orthopedic surgery. If the above argument is correct, increasing diversity among African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and women in orthopedic surgery is necessary for moral and prudential reasons….

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Diversity and Professional Excellence: SECTION TWO

SECTION TWO: THE PRUDENTIAL ARGUMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL DIVERSITY At this point, our argument takes a rather different direction. We contend that (ethics aside) a profession that is more diverse in its membership will be more excellent in the execution of its functional tasks than one that is not diverse. For purposes of clarification, we will…

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