CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Measures of Medical Treatment 2

A recent trial comparing medical and surgical management of elderly patients with coronary artery disease reported improved quality of life at one year for both treatment arms (Pfisterer, Buser et al. 2003), suggesting that treatment likely reduces disability in the elderly population. However, no studies to date have estimated the effect of increased use of…

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INFANT HEALTH: Methodology

Consider a partially linear approximation to equation, where 9 represents the reduced-form causal parameter in equation, т(•) is a general mapping, and the residual e is meant to capture other factors potentially affecting infant health (e.g., maternal age). Identifying the effect of education on infant health, 9, requires solving two difficult problems. The first problem…

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INFANT HEALTH: Effect of Education Represent

The model of fertility and child investment outlined above suggests that infant health is a function of (i) maternal choice variables (e.g., smoking while pregnant) and (ii) maternal endowments (e.g., genetic makeup). A general health production function takes the form Y = f (X, W), where Y is a measure of the health of a…

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INFANT HEALTH: Conceptual Issues 2

The income channel operates through the well-documented effect of education on labor earnings. In a comprehensive survey, Card concludes that by the 1990s, the causal effect of an additional year of education on annual earnings for both women and men in the United States was around 15 percent.6 The notion that an exogenous increase in…

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INFANT HEALTH: Conceptual Issues

Fourth, education at motherhood may differ from completed education if women return to school after childbirth. This is important because a temporary reduction in schooling will not necessarily affect permanent household income, whereas a permanent reduction in schooling would be expected to, because of the labor market return to schooling. Schooling reductions are likely to…

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INFANT HEALTH: Introduction 3

Proper interpretation of our estimates requires consideration of several features specific to our approach. First, not all children will begin school in the year predicted by school entry policies. The parents of a child born before the school entry date may hold their child back by a year, and the parents of a child born…

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INFANT HEALTH: Introduction 2

Using large samples of birth records, we reach four key conclusions: 1. School entry policies have large effects on schooling at motherhood: one-fourth of young Texas mothers born after the school entry date have a year less education than they otherwise would, had they been born before the entry date. For California, our estimate is…

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