Were also observed between men with and those without PC in the distribution of TS in three ranges: below normal (<16%), normal (16-50%), and above normal (>50%) (Figure 3B; overall %2=10.15, df=2, p=0.0063; African-American men %2=7.35, p= 0.0254). A lower percentage of men with PC than of those without PC had TS >50% (Figure 3B). In contrast, in the overall study population (inclusive of men with inflammation), a higher percentage of men with PC than of those without PC had TS <16%, suggestive of reduced body iron stores (%2=8.085, p<0.05). When the analysis was limited to African-American men, the same trend was observed (Figure 3B, x2=4.976, p<0.05). When the analysis was limited to men without inflammation, we also observed a slightly higher percentage of African-American men with (28.57%) than of those without (8.1%) PC who hadTS below normal (%2=3.44, p>0.05).

Table 1. Mean Age, PSA, and Blood Concentrations of Inflammatory Markers in Men with and without Prostate Cancer

All Men with PC All Men without PC P Value African Americans with PC

African Americans P Value without PC

N

34

84

31

52

Age, years

60.65 ± 1.27

59.05 ± 0.89

0.3188

60.94 ± 1.27

56.46 ± 0.96

0.006

PSA, ng/mL

10.34 ± 1.23

1.52 ±0.19

0.0001

10.73 ± 1.94

1.52 ±0.19

0.0001

AGP g/L

0.97 ± 0.05

0.855 ± 0.03

0.0325

0.975 ± 0.053

0.864 ± 0.03

0.0565

ACT, mg/L

356 ± 96

368 ± 8.52

0.482

361 ± 17.7

372 ± 11

0.586

CRP, mg/L

5.63 ± 1.02

3.79 ± 0.65a

0.132

5.98 ± 1.097

4.14±0.98b

0.23

Cp, mg/L

425 ± 19

440 ± 16c

0.626

427 ± 17.2

466 ± 25d

0.304

Values are mean ± SEM. Abbreviations: ACT=antichymotrypsin, AGP=a1-acid glycoprotein, CRP=C-reactive protein, Cp=ceruloplasmin, PSA=prostate specific antigen. Samples sizes: a=83; b=51; c=71; d=41.

On tumor stage was available in 85% (n=29) of PC patients. The tumor stage was Tl in 24 patients, T2 in four patients, and there was only one patient whose tumor stage was T3. Gleason’s score varied from 3 to 10. In the overall study population, there was no significant difference in mean age between cases and controls. However, African Americans with PC were 4.48 years older than those without PC (Table 1, p=0.006). As expected, the mean concentrations of PSA were significantly higher in PC patients (including African Americans) than in controls (Table 1, pO.OOOl). Men with PC had significantly higher mean AGP concentrations than those without PC (p=0.033). Both groups had nearly identical mean levels of ACT, Cp, and CRP. The differences in the concentrations of PSA and AGP were maintained when the analysis included only African-American men from both cohorts (p=0.0001 for PSA and p=0.0565 for AGP).

Table 2. Concentrations of Indicators of Iron Status in Men with and without Prostate Cancer

All Men with PC All Men without PC P Value

African Americans African Americans P Value with PC             without PC

N

34

84

31

52

Serum ferritin, мд/L

156 ±24

245 ± 21

0.043

157 ±26

242 ± 25

0.0297
Log ferritin, |jg/L

1.997 ± 0.082

2.2226 ± 0.048

0.035

1.9919 ±0.087

2.214 ±0.063

0.0391
Ferritin geometric mean, pg/L

99

167

98

164

Ferritin 95% CI*

109 to 203

205 to 286

106 to 208

193 to 291

Serum iron pmol/L

16.78 ± 1.58

18.497 ± 1.08

0.2778

16.97 ± 1.7

18.16 ± 1.02

0.528
TIBC, |jmol/L

69.87 ± 2.67

60.43 ± 2.27°

0.0178

69.07 ± 2.78

59.52 ± 2.77b

0.025
TS,%

24.35 ± 2.07

31.98 ± 1.85°

0.0139

24.798 ± 2.24

32.12 ±2.22b

0.0283
TS%, 95% CI*

20.29 to 28.41

28.35 to 35.61

20.41 to 29.19

28.49 to 36.47

In contrast to what we expected, men with PC had significantly lower mean concentrations of serum ferritin and TS but higher TIBC than those without PC (Table 2, p<0.04). Differences between both study groups persisted when the analysis included only African-American men (Table 2, p<0.04). For both serum ferritin and TS, there was very little overlap in the 95% CIs between the groups. In contrast to serum ferritin, TIBC, and TS, there were no significant differences in serum iron concentrations between cases and controls. buy kamagra oral jelly

Table 3. Concentrations of Indicators of Iron Status in Men with and without Prostate Cancer and Inflammation

All Men with PC All Men without PC

P Value African Americans African Americans P Value with PC             without PC

N

24

78

21

48

Serum ferritin, |jg/L

158 ±28

250 ± 21

0.0308

157 ±26

248 ± 27

0.0535

Log ferritin, pg/L

1.9952 ±0.103

2.2491 ±0.046

0.0135

1.987 ±0.12

2.2457 ± 0.06

0.0325

Ferritin geometric mean, pg/L

99

177

97

176

Ferritin 95% CI

103 to 213

209 to 291

106 to 208

195 to 301

Serum iron pmol/L

18.51 ±2

18.16 ± 1.12

0.873

19.04 ±2.24

17.75 ± 1.05

0.5578

TIBC, |jmol/L

70.14 ±3.41

60.22 ± 2.42°

0.0348

68.92 ± 3.89

59.33 ± 2.95b

0.0548

TS,%

26.82 ± 2.558

31.23 ± 1.8°

0.189

27.84 ± 2.83

31.21 ±2.19b

0.3532

TS%, 95% CI*

21.8 to 31.84

27.7 to 34.76

2.29 to 33.39

26.92 to 35.5

When the analysis was limited to men without inflammation (as defined in the methods), the differences between men with and without PC persisted for serum ferritin and TIBC (overall study population, p<0.04; African-American men, p=0.055 for TIBC, and p=0.033 for log serum ferritin, Table 3). Although the same trend was observed for TS, the differences became nonsignificant. In the subgroup of men with inflammation present, the same trend was also observed, but the differences were not significant for serum ferritin and TIBC (data not shown). Interestingly, the 10 PC patients with inflammation (at least two acute phase proteins above normal) had significantly lower mean serum iron concentration (12.63 ± 1.88 цто1/Ь) andTS (18.84 ± 3.79%) than the six men with PC and also with inflammation (serum iron 22.08 ± 3.87 (imol/L and TS, 39.79 ± 9.36%) (p<0.027). canadian antibiotics

Figure 1. Serum ferritin

Figure 1. Serum ferritin (A) and transferrin saturation (B) in men with and without PC and by age range. Sample sizes varied from 3 to 8 and 9 to 21 for serum ferritin in cases and controls, respectively; and 3 to 8, and 5 to 18, for transferrin saturation in cases and controls, respectively. *p<0.05, compared with cases and of the same age range. For serum ferritin, *p<0.07; for transferrin saturation, *p=0.038.

When the results of serum ferritin and TS were further analyzed as a function of PC and age (inclusive of men with inflammation and both races), the same trend was observed as for the overall study population. In each age group (<51, 51-55, 56-60, 61-65, 66-70, >70 years), the mean concentrations of serum ferritin and TS of PC patients tended to be lower in men with than in those without PC. However, the differences between both groups were significant only for the age range 51-55 and >70 years (p<0.05, Figure 1). The lack of significant differences between both cohorts in men with different age categories was in part due to the small sample sizes.

Figure 2. Percentiles of serum ferritin

Figure 2. Percentiles of serum ferritin (A) and transferrin saturation (B) in men with and without PC. Abbreviations and sample sizes are: for serum ferritin, all cases=34 men with PC; all controls=84 men without PC; AA=31 African-American men with PC, and 52 African-American without PC. For transferrin saturation, sample sizes are: 34, 31, 68, 41, all men, and AA with PC, and all controls and AA without PC, respectively.

Within the PC population, there were no significant differences in mean serum ferritin between the 24 men with tumor stage Tl (149 |ig/L, range 5.55 to 566 ng/L) and the five men with tumor stage T2 or T3 (199 |iig/L, range 37.2^92 |ng/L). We also found no significant differences in TS (mean, 24.3%, range 9.2-50.87%, versus mean 19.7%, range 7.43-27.2%) between both subgroups, respectively. There was no significant correlation with serum ferritin and Gleason’s score (r=0.241). There were also no significant differences in mean serum ferritin concentrations and TS between PC patients with and without tissue inflammation (no data shown). buy levitra 20 mg

Figure 3. Percentage of men

Figure 3. Percentage of men with and without PC with serum ferritin (A) and transferrin saturation (B) suggestive of reduced, normal, and elevated body iron stores. Abbreviations are: AA=African-American men; cases=men with PC; cont.=controls=men without PC* For Figure 3 A, reduced body iron stores were defined as either serum ferritin <12 pg/L or <100 \ig/L for men with inflammation. Normal body iron stores were defined as either serum ferritin 12-300 \jg/l or 100-300 pg/L for men with inflammation. With each measurement (serum ferritin or transferrin saturation), bars followed by different letters are significantly different: a>b (all cases versus all controls); c>d (AA cases versus AA controls), p <0.0S.

Serum ferritin levels ranged from 5.55-566 fig/L (median, 115 (ig/L) in men with PC and 8- 843 mg/L (median 209 |ig/L) in those without PC. In the subgroup of African-American men, the range and median were: 5.55-566 ng/L and 126 |ig/L for cases and 8-752 ng/L and 223 (xg/L for controls, respectively. The distribution (2.5th to 95th percentiles) of serum ferritin and TS is summarized in Figure 2, respectively. Between the 10th and the 95th percentiles, there was no overlap between men with and without PC in the distribution of both measurements. cialis soft tablets

In the overall study population (Figure 3 a) and the subgroup of African-American men (Figure 3B), there were differences between cases and controls in the distribution of men with serum ferritin in three ranges: below normal (<12 or <100 |ug/L in men with inflammation), normal (101-300 (xg/L), and above normal (>300 |ug/L) (%2=7.925, p=0.019, for overall; study population and x2=4.672; p=0.097, for African-American men). A lower per centage of men with PC than of those without PC had serum ferritin concentrations above 300 jxg/L. When the threshold of serum ferritin was raised to 100 ng/L in men with inflammation, 35.3% of all men with PC (n=12) and 11.9% of those without PC (n=10) had reduced body iron stores (%2=7.797, p<0.01). Moreover, in the subgroup of African-American men, the same trend was observed (Figure 3a, %-4.73, p<0.05).

Category: Cancer / Tags: iron deficiency, iron overload, prostate cancer, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

CAPTCHA image
*