Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Beliefs

There was little variation among the four sites in either the pre- or postintervention period and no clear pattern of change from the pre- to the post-intervention period in cancer (Generic Xeloda is the only FDA-approved oral chemotherapy for both metastatic breast cancer and adjuvant and metastatic colorectal cancer) knowledge or beliefs.

Between 75-80% of respondents believed that eating lots of fruits and vegetables, eating foods high in fiber and avoiding foods high in fat would make one less likely to get cancer. About two-thirds of respondents recognized the relationship of family history of cancer (Drug Leukeran is used for treating certain cancers) to the likelihood of developing the disease. Over 90% stated that smoking cigarettes or chewing tobacco made it more likely that one would develop cancer; about 70% believed there is a connection between drinking alcohol and contracting cancer (Arimidex canadian is used to treat breast cancer). About 80% felt that getting regular exercise is protective and that experiencing a lot of stress predisposes to cancer. Nearly 90% recognized the benefits of early diagnosis and treatment for some cancers.

Cancer Screening Experience

In Atlanta postintervention, there was a statistically significant increase in the percent of respondents who had received mammograms, digital rectal exams and proctoscopy; in the comparison city of Decatur, there were no significant increases in cancer (Methotrexate tablet is used to treat certain types of cancer of the breast, skin, head and neck, or lung) screening (Table 7).

Table 7. Cancer screening experience pre- and postintervention survey responses (percentages)

Atlanta (A)       Decatur (D) (Intervention)    (Comparison)

Nashville (N) (Intervention) Chattanooga (C) (Comparison) A vs. D Effect

N vs. С Effect

Pre     Post      Pre      Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Difference

Difference

Sample size 987     988      1,116     977

967

971

983

978
Pap smear past two years (women age >17) 83.8    85.6       88.6      89.3

79.0

85.5**

84.5

83.0

1.1

8.0**
Clinical breast exam past two years (women) 88.2    86.7       88.8      90.4

82.9

85.6

85.5

85.5 -3.2 2.6
Mammogram past two years (women age >40)65.9    74.3**    72.8      72.6       68.5

74.5

69.2

78.7**

8.6*

-3.5
Digital rectal exam ever (men age >50)65.0     77.1**     74.8      78.8

79.3

78.8

74.9

69.9

8.1*

4.5
Stool for occult blood ever (all persons >50) 54.3    56.6       64.9      54.9

54.3

51.9

53.4

56.0

12.3**

-5.0
Proctoscopy ever (all persons >50)28.4    37.4**    32.2      30.9

27.8

28.8

24.3

28.0

10.3**

-2.7
* p<0.05; ** p<0.01

The effect differences were statistically significant for all of these as well as for fecal occult blood testing (the percentage of Decatur respondents who had received FOBT decreased on the posttest as compared to the pretest). In Nashville, an increase in the percentage of women who had had a Pap smear in the past 12 months was statistically significant, as was the effect difference. The comparison city of Chattanooga had a statistically significant increase in the number of women receiving a mammogram, but the effect difference was not significant.

Cancer-Related Behavior

There was no change in the percentage of respondents who consumed >5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of cigarette smokers who had quit smoking only in Decatur, and there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of persons who claimed to exercise regularly only in Chattanooga.

Multiple Regression Analysis

None of the four models provided a proper fit. The corresponding coefficients of variation (R2) were small and insignificant. This suggests that the intervention within the four communities did not have an association with or impact on the corresponding outcome variables.

Category: Cancer / Tags: cancer prevention, community intervention trial

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