Chronic Hepatitis В

INTRODUCTION

Hepatitis-B infection is a serious threat worldwide and becomes chronic at a rate of 5% in regions of high risk. It is estimated that 350 million people throughout the world suffer from hepatitis B, and 1 million people die annually from cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer related to chronic hepatitis В (CHB).

Despite significant developments in the treatment of hepatitis B, there is no absolute treatment for it. The need for alternative treatments has arisen due to side effects from antiviral drugs. The continuous inhibition of hepatitis-B virus (HBV) replication through administration of interferon and lamuvudine is 40% at best, indicating a failure rate of 60% for these drugs. The other two negative attributes are the high cost and significant side effects of these drugs. Going without your pills? Buy cheap omnicef cefdinir online

Humoral and cellular immunity play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B. HBV clearance is achieved via the loss of HBVs from the blood caused by antibodies developed against capsule antigens and the destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) of virus-infected hepatocytes. Furthermore, cytokines secreted from CTL inhibit the gene expression of hepatitis В virus. The consequence of an HBV invasion of the human body varies according to the status of immune system. It may be totally destroyed or may result in chronic disease or inactive carrier status. There is evidence that virus vaccines can restore a disrupted immune system: 1) vaccination is used in other diseases as well. A vaccination by herpes simplex glycoprotein S in patients with genital herpes simplex decreases the severity and frequency of the infection. Fewer relapses and longer remission periods are observed in acute В and С hepatitis cases, where the patient is vaccinated with bursal disease virus (MTH-68/B) vaccine, compared to the classical treatments; 2) it has been determined that lymphocytes of HBV carriers develop anti-HBsAg in vitro; 3) the most significant results produced a decrease or disappearance of HBsAg and HBV-DNA levels in the studies of HBV vaccine treatment applied to humans and animals.

Levamisole is a widely used derivative of levo isomer of tetramisole for anthelmintic treatments. Following the discovery of its immunomodulator effect in 1972, it was used to treat many diseases, including colon carcinomas, advanced malignant diseases, aphthous stomatitis, bacterial infections and HIV infection. Levamisole stimulates the PNL, macrophages and T lymphocytes, and increases the chemotaxis and proliferation of these cells. It enables hepatocytes to be destroyed by directly activating the CTL secretion to combat the infected hepatocytes. The increase in transaminase, HBsAg and HBV-DNA levels during the treatment is seen as the result of the destruction of infected cells. Occasionally, levamisole may paradoxically activate a T-lymphocyte suppressor. Although in the previous studies levamisole was mentioned as an effective agent in treatment of CHB, it has recently been described as ineffective, but there are reports that it may be used when interferon is not useful. Need medication you can’t afford? Buy generic Levofloxacin online

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of levamisole and HBsAg vaccine therapy on liver transaminase values and virological indicators in naive CHB patients and in CHB carriers. In addition, we planned to find out whether vaccination and treatment biopsy was performed on 22/50 CHB patients. We determined hepatocellular damage of varying degrees in the biopsy of 22 patients (16 mild, four intermediate, two severe). The mean Knodell score was 5.77 ± 1.23. For the patients who had a HBsAg positive, no clinical signs of liver disease and no elevated ALT values were determined as the HBV carrier.

The other indicators of viral hepatitis (anti-HCV, anti-Delta, anti-HAV IgM) and anti-HIV were negative in patients accepted into the study. The patients had not used any drug pertaining to hepatitis or any other disease previously. Beat the drug companies and buy female viagra online

The patients were divided into three treatment groups based on age, gender, etiology and HBeAg positivity. These groups were as follows: levamisole group (L: N=32 patients), vaccine group (V: N=28 patients), and combined levamisole and vaccine group (LV: N=33 patients). Levamisole (Ketrax®) was delivered to the L group as 2.5 mg/kg (p.o.) three times a week. HBsAg vaccine (Gen Hevac B®) was administered to the V group subcutaneously in doses of 20-, 30- and 40 |ug at one-month intervals. Both drugs were delivered to the LV group. No side effects were observed during the treatment period.  Buy levitra professional

Pretreatment and three-month-long posttreatment ALT values and indicators of hepatitis В were studied. Serum ALT analysis was studied using an Olympus AU 800 autoanalyzer with its own kits. Values above 45 U/L were assessed as being high. HBV antigen and antibodies, HAV-IgM, anti-HCV and anti-HDV tests were performed in a full automatic ELISA device with BIOKIT kits and, by SFRI

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