Table 1 shows the characteristics of the study patients by cognitive impairment status. There were 36 men and 64 women (mean age 67.5 ± 9.01 years). The mean GDS score was 2.67 ±3.19. The crude prevalence of cognitive impairment (MMSE<24) was 10% and the age-adjusted prevalence was 12.5%. Thirty-nine of the study subjects were <64 years of age; 39 were between ages 65 and 74 years; and 22 were >75 years. Twenty-eight had an education level <8th grade; 26 had a level between ninth and 11th grade; 30 completed high school; and 16 had some college. Sixty-two subjects had NYHA class II, while 37 had NYHA class III-1V, and data from one subject were missing. Fifty-six had an EF of <40 and 44 had an EF >40. The mean and SD were 33 ± 16.56 and 34 ± 23.29, respectively.

Patients with cognitive impairment were older than their counterparts without cognitive impairment (77.0 ± 8.01 vs. 66.9 ± 8.9, p=0.04). There were no statistically significant differences between both groups of patients with and without cognitive impairment by selected vari­ables (Table 1), except for education (Table 2). The prevalence of cognitive impairment increased with increasing levels of education (p=0.038). cozaar tablets

Table 1. Characteristics of the Study Population (n=100) and Association with Cognitive Impairment

Characteristic All Subjects

Cognitive Impairment

P Value

n

(%) Yes (n=10)

No (n=90)

Age n(%) n(%)
<64 years

39

(39.00) 2 (20.00)

37 (41.11)

65-74 years

39

(39.00) 3 (30.00)

36 (40.00)

>75 years

22

(22.00) 5 (50.00)

17 (18.89)

0.074
Gender
Females

64

(64.00) 4 (40.00)

60 (66.67)

Males

36

(36.00) 6 (60.00)

30 (33.33)

0.096
GDS
Normal

76

(76.00) 8 (80.00)

69 (76.67)

Depression

23

(23.00) 2 (20.00)

21 (23.33)

0.812
Education
<8th grade

28

(28.00) 1 (10.00)

27 (30.00)

9th-llth grade

26

(26.00) 2 (20.00)

24 (26.67)

12th grade

30

(30.00) 2 (20.00)

28 (31.11)

Some college

16

(16.00) 5 (50.00)

11 (12.22)

0.038
NYHA
Class II

62

(62.00) 6 (60.00)

56 (62.92)

Class III—IV

37

(37.00) 4 (40.00)

33 (37.08)

0.856
Ejection Fraction
>40

44

(44.00) 7 (70.00)

55 (55.00)

<40

56

(56.00) 3 (30.00)

35 (35.00)

0.988

In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age as a continuous variable was significantly related to the prevalence of cognitive impairment. The odds of cognitive impairment increase 1.10 times with each one-year increase in age (OR=1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.20, p=0.042). generic crestor

Table 2. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment by Selected Characteristics

Selected Characteristics

Age

<64 years 65-74 years >75 years

Percent Cognitive Impairment

5.13 7.69 22.73

P Value

0.074

Gender Females Males 6.25 16.67 0.096
Education <8th grade 9th-l 1th grade 12th grade Some college 3.57 7.69 6.67 31.25 0.038
Depression

Yes

No

8.70 10.39 0.812
NYHA Class II Class lll-IV 9.68 10.81 0.856
Ejection Fraction

<40%

>40%

12.90 13.04 0.988
Category: Diseases / Tags: African Americans, cognitive impairment, congestive, heart failure

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