Congestive Heart Failure DISCUSSION

The results of the present study indicated that cognitive impairment is relatively prevalent (10%) in African-American patients with CHF (Generic Lasix Treating fluid build-up and swelling caused by congestive heart failure), and this prevalence increases with age. The prevalence of cognitive impairment among CHF patients has been assessed in several case-controlled studies.”  jn these studies, almost exclusively among white men and women, the prevalence of cognitive impairment among patients with CHF (Lozol medication is used for treating high blood pressure, swelling, or congestive heart failure) varied widely between 13% and 54%. When we calculated an age-adjusted rate between the Caucasian group (as standard) and our   population   of   CHF patients, the age-adjusted prevalence was 12.5%. However, no study has specifically assessed the prevalence of cognitive impairment among African-American patients with CHF (Enalapril tablets is used for treating high blood pressure, heart failure).

Previous studies have indicated a relationship between cognitive impairment and age, gender, education and depression. It is also well-established that age is a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Our results are in line with these previous observations. Zuccala et al. indicated in their study that the extent of cognitive impairment correlated with the degree of left ventricular dysfunction.

However, the results of the present study failed to demonstrate a relationship between cognitive impairment and gender, depression and severity of CHF (Generic Accupril is used for lowering high blood pressure and managing heart failure), possibly because of a small sample size. Another potential explanation for this discrepancy is that while patients in our study were recruited from a selective group of patients in an ongoing, single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a telemoni-toring, patient-oriented intervention to improve access to ambulatory heart failure patients, our study participants were much younger in age, had higher education than those in previous studies and they may not be representative of the general population of CHF (Altace drug is used to treat of heart failure and hypertension) patients.

Despite these limitations, this study provides the first indication for the relatively high prevalence of cognitive impairment among African-American patients with CHF (Lanoxin 250 mg is used for treating heart failure). cognitive impairment has an important impact on a population of patients with CHF, since it has been shown to be associated with a significant risk of dementia, associated with disability, dependence, morbidity and mortality. Cognitive impairment is rapidly becoming a public health problem with the aging of the population, cognitive impairment may also play a role in medication compliance, which may lead to frequent hospitalization and high mortality among CHF (valsartan 160 mg is used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure) patients. This study indicates that cognitive impairment is prevalent among patients with CHF and should be assessed by clinicians and other healthcare workers managing these patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between cognitive impairment and hospital readmission rates. Previous studies have shown that CHF (Canadian Aldactone is used for treating swelling and fluid retention inpatients with congestive heart failure) is the leading indication for hospital admission in adults older than age 65. Among factors related to rehospitalization are nonad-herence to medication and advice on lifestyle modifications, as well as failure to seek medical attention when the condition deteriorates. Future studies may clarify the role of cognitive impairment to CHF (Aldactone 25 mg treating swelling and fluid retention inpatients with congestive heart failure) readmissions in African-American patients, who are at higher risk for readmissions. Healthcare professionals managing these patients would have to assess their patients for cognitive impairment and prescribe appropriate management.

Category: Diseases / Tags: African Americans, cognitive impairment, congestive, heart failure

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