Bone metabolism: Kidney

The presence of renal calcium leak is the basis for the so- called renal hypercalciuria, which is characterized by increased urine calcium, a tendency toward hypocalcemia, and a sec­ondary increase in parathyroid hormone secretion. The latter is considered the main cause of bone loss in these patients. However, the large revision of the pathogenetic aspects…

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Bone metabolism: Intestine

Bone metabolism: Intestine

Although the classical distinction of PH in absorptive and fast­ing hypercalciuria is still maintained, a wide overlap seems to occur between the two forms. Besides, the intestinal function plays a key role both in the pathogenesis of PH and in the de­velopment or maintenance of bone disease. Indeed, as men­tioned above, some studies also reported…

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Bone metabolism: Bone

Since the revision of the types of PH proposed by Levy and colleagues, the term “fasting hypercalciuria” has been used to identify patients who could not lower or normalize their urine calcium excretion appropriately after a restriction in di­etary calcium consumption. As low bone density was more fre­quently reported in these patients, the presence of…

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Bone metabolism: The type of bone disease

One of the most puzzling aspects of bone disease in patients with PH is its nature. As a matter of fact, bone histomorphome- tric studies are rare in this setting and have yielded non-homo­geneous results. Bone resorption activity seems to be in­creased or even normal, while the most com­mon histological alteration is a reduction in…

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Bone metabolism

Primary (or idiopathic) hypercalciuria (PH) is the most frequent metabolic abnormality in patients with nephrolithiasis and it is believed to be present in up to 10% of the general population. Several hypotheses have been made to explain its patho­genesis and clinical consequences. It has recently become clear that bone is one of the most important…

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