Thrombolytic medication might be given after a stroke, but the benefit is far less certain than in heart disease. Clinical trials show that thrombolytics are effective only if given in the first three hours after an acute event (Group 1995; Clark, Wissman et al. 1999; Adams, Adams et al. 2005). Revascularization procedures such as carotid endarterectomy may be performed in patients with certain types of stroke, including transient ischemic attacks, after the patients have recovered from the acute phase of the stroke. A small share of strokes are hemorrhagic strokes, where a blood vessel bursts and there is bleeding in the skull. Little therapy is generally available in such cases, and death is common. natural breast enhancement
Heart failure and arrhythmias are other types of cardiovascular disease that cause substantial morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Heart failure occurs when the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. Patients may experience breathlessness and fatigue that makes it difficult to keep up usual activities, fluid retention and edema, coughing, memory loss and heart palpitations. An arrhythmia is an irregular heartbeat that can cause the heart to pump blood less effectively.
Patients with heart failure and/or arrhythmias may also be at substantial risk for stroke and other complications (American Heart Association 2006). Treatment for heart failure includes ace-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and diuretics. Appropriate patients may also undergo valve replacement surgery or other revascularization. Patients with arrhythmias often receive pacemakers and occasionally receive implantable cardioverter defibrillators along with antiarrhythmic drugs and blood thinners. Other cardiovascular diseases, generally with smaller prevalence, include rheumatic heart disease, aneurysms, acute pulmonary heart disease, other diseases of the endocardium, capillary diseases, and problems with veins (e.g. varicose veins).
Like every multidimensional concept, there is no perfect measure of disability. We follow the lead of most researchers in measuring disability as the presence of impairments in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Our data source, the National Long-Term Care Survey of 1984-1999 – abbreviated NLTCS – includes information on 6 ADL measures: eating, getting in or out of bed, walking around inside, dressing, bathing, and getting to the toilet or using the toilet. Questions are also asked about 8 IADL measures: doing light housework, laundry, preparing meals, shopping for groceries, getting around outside, managing money, taking medications and making telephone calls.