Acarbose

Acarbose is the first of a new class of oral antidiabetic agents termed ‘alpha-glucosidase inhibitors’. It has recently been licensed for sale in Canada for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who have not achieved adequate control with diet and physical activity. Research to find drugs capable of delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption began in the late 1960s, and acarbose has been studied for more than 20 years. Acarbose is marketed in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and many other countries worldwide. Acar-bose represents the first new treatment for NIDDM since the advent of the sulphony-lureas and biguanides in the mid-1950s. The next class of drugs likely to be introduced for use in NIDDM is the thiazolidinedione derivatives, notably troglitazone, which appear,to improve glycemic control by improving the sensitivity of target cells to the action of insulin. It’s time for you to start saving some money: you just need to visit the pharmacy that offers finest quality Generic Zyrtec with delivery straight to your door and all the confidentiality guarantees you ever need.

PHARMACOLOGY

Carbohydrates comprise the main component of our diet and provide the majority of its energy content. The major carbohydrates, starch and sucrose, must be enzymatically broken down to monosaccharides before absorption can occur (Figure 1). In the intestinal lumen starch is cleaved by pancreatic alpha-amylase to liberate smaller units termed di-, tri- and oligosaccharides. These, in turn, are hydrolyzed at the brush border of the intestine by the alpha-glucosidase enzymes (sucrase, maltase, isomaltase and glucoamylase). The end result is liberation of absorbable monosaccharides, primarily glucose (also referred to as dextrose) and fructose. This process of digestion and absorption normally takes place very rapidly in the upper small intestine and leads to a rapid and extensive rise in postprandial blood glucose levels in diabetics.

Figure1Acarbose_An alpha-glucosidast

 Figure 1) Digestion of dietary carbohydrates. Reproduced with permission from Clin Pharmacokinet

Figure2Acarbose_An alpha-glucosidast

 Figure 2) Structural formula of acarbose. Reproduced with permission from Clin Pharmacokinet

 

 

Category: Acarbose / Tags: Acarbose, Biguanides, Insulin, Metformin, Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Sulphonylureas

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